Next Article in Journal
Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater
Next Article in Special Issue
Benzyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Prostate Cancer Development in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) Model, Which Is Associated with the Induction of Cell Cycle G1 Arrest
Previous Article in Journal
Sulfasalazine Treatment Suppresses the Formation of HLA-B27 Heavy Chain Homodimer in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 44; doi:10.3390/ijms17010044

Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo

1
Department of Pharmacology and Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2
Central Laboratory, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei 111, Taiwan
3
Department of Neurology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
4
Department of Research and Development, Institute of Ophthalmology, Joseph Eye Hospital, Tiruchirappalli 620001, Tamil Nadu, India
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gopinadhan Paliyath
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 24 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 December 2015 / Published: 29 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanism of Action of Food Components in Disease Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2041 KB, uploaded 29 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant carotenoid, plays a major role in modulating the immune response. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of astaxanthin on cytokine production in primary cultured lymphocytes both in vitro and ex vivo. Direct administration of astaxanthin (70–300 nM) did not produce cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/ mL)- or concanavalin A (Con A, 10 µg/ mL)-activated lymphocytes, whereas astaxanthin alone at 300 nM induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes (p < 0.05) in vitro. Although astaxanthin, alone or with Con A, had no apparent effect on interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin (IL-2) production in primary cultured lymphocytes, it enhanced LPS-induced INF-γ production. In an ex vivo experiment, oral administration of astaxanthin (0.28, 1.4 and 7 mg/kg/day) for 14 days did not cause alterations in the body or spleen weights of mice and also was not toxic to lymphocyte cells derived from the mice. Moreover, treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo but not Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that administration of astaxanthin significantly enhanced INF-γ production in response to both LPS and Con A stimulation, whereas IL-2 production increased only in response to Con A stimulation. Also, astaxanthin treatment alone significantly increased IL-2 production in lymphocytes derived from mice, but did not significantly change production of INF-γ. These findings suggest that astaxanthin modulates lymphocytic immune responses in vitro, and that it partly exerts its ex vivo immunomodulatory effects by increasing INF-γ and IL-2 production without inducing cytotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; LPS; Con A; mice; lymphocytes; INF-γ; IL-2; immunomodulation astaxanthin; LPS; Con A; mice; lymphocytes; INF-γ; IL-2; immunomodulation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, K.-H.; Lin, K.-C.; Lu, W.-J.; Thomas, P.-A.; Jayakumar, T.; Sheu, J.-R. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 44.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top