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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29250-29264; doi:10.3390/ijms161226163

Vitamin E Content and Composition in Tomato Fruits: Beneficial Roles and Bio-Fortification

1
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, Portici (Naples) 80055, Italy
2
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, Naples 80131, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Laura Colombo, Laura Di Renzo and Rafat A. Siddiqui
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Metabolism and Properties)
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Abstract

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high vitamin E intakes are related to a reduced risk of non-communicable diseases, while other dietary antioxidants are not, suggesting that vitamin E exerts specific healthy functions in addition to its antioxidant role. In this regard, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most consumed vegetables of the whole world population, is an important source of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, vitamin E content may strongly depend on several biotic and abiotic factors. In this review we will debate the elements affecting the synthesis of tocopherols and tocotrienols in tomato fruit, such as environmental conditions, genotype, fruit maturity level, and the impact of classical processing methods, such as pasteurization and lyophilization on the amount of these compounds. In addition we will analyze the specific vitamin E mechanisms of action in humans and the consequent functional effects derived from its dietary intake. Finally, we will examine the currently available molecular techniques used to increase the content of vitamin E in tomato fruit, starting from the identification of genetic determinants and quantitative trait loci that control the accumulation of these metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: tocopherol; tocotrienol; Solanum lycopersicum; health effects; metabolic pathway; biosynthesis; environmental conditions; processing; biofortification; quantitative trait loci tocopherol; tocotrienol; Solanum lycopersicum; health effects; metabolic pathway; biosynthesis; environmental conditions; processing; biofortification; quantitative trait loci
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Raiola, A.; Tenore, G.C.; Barone, A.; Frusciante, L.; Rigano, M.M. Vitamin E Content and Composition in Tomato Fruits: Beneficial Roles and Bio-Fortification. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 29250-29264.

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