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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23227-23249; doi:10.3390/ijms161023227

Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

1
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, University of Pavia, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy
2
Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Milano, Milan 20100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maria Laura Colombo, Laura Di Renzo and Rafat A. Siddiqui
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Metabolism and Properties)
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Abstract

Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: tocopherols; tocotrienols; dietary supplement; aging; sarcopenia; osteoporosis; mild cognitive impairment; dementia; vitamin E tocopherols; tocotrienols; dietary supplement; aging; sarcopenia; osteoporosis; mild cognitive impairment; dementia; vitamin E
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rondanelli, M.; Faliva, M.A.; Peroni, G.; Moncaglieri, F.; Infantino, V.; Naso, M.; Perna, S. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 23227-23249.

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