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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25096-25107; doi:10.3390/ijms161025096

Silkworm Thorn Stem Extract Targets RSK2 and Suppresses Solar UV-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression

1,2,3
and
1,3,*
1
WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea
2
The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912, USA
3
Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles Brennan
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1095 KB, uploaded 22 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Excessive exposure to solar UV (sUV) is associated with numerous human skin disorders, such as carcinogenesis, skin photoaging and skin inflammation. Silkworm Thorn (Cudraniatricuspidata, SW) is a plant belonging to the Moraceae family and widely present throughout Korea, China, and Japan. Most parts of the tree (including the fruit, leaf, stem, root, and bark) is consumable as a functional food or tea. In this study, we found that SW extract (SWE) inhibited the elevated expression of sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 levels in both HaCaT and JB6 cells. Levels of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1, two crucial transcription factors involved in COX-2 expression, were elevated by sUV treatment. Treatment with SWE abolished this activation. SWE also inhibited sUV-induced histone H3 phosphorylation. However, sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase remained unchanged in the presence of SWE. SWE inhibited RSK2 activity, and pull-down assays using SWE-Sepharose beads revealed that SWE binds directly with RSK2 in an ATP-competitive manner. These results suggest a potential for SWE to be developed as a cosmeceutical material and functional food constituent for the promotion of skin health. View Full-Text
Keywords: silkworm thorn; cyclooxygenase-2; ultraviolet; RSK2 silkworm thorn; cyclooxygenase-2; ultraviolet; RSK2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.-E.; Lee, K.W. Silkworm Thorn Stem Extract Targets RSK2 and Suppresses Solar UV-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 25096-25107.

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