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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24174-24193; doi:10.3390/ijms161024174

Developmental and Reproductive Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Arabidopsis thaliana

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Box 870344, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Alabama, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Cristina S. Samia
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 October 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1998 KB, uploaded 13 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Increasing use of iron oxide nanoparticles in medicine and environmental remediation has led to concerns regarding exposure of these nanoparticles to the public. However, limited studies are available to evaluate their effects on the environment, in particular on plants and food crops. Here, we investigated the effects of positive (PC) and negative (NC) charged iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (IONPs) on the physiology and reproductive capacity of Arabidopsis thaliana at concentrations of 3 and 25 mg/L. The 3 mg/L treated plants did not show evident effects on seeding and root length. However, the 25 mg/L treatment resulted in reduced seedling (positive-20% and negative-3.6%) and root (positive-48% and negative-negligible) length. Interestingly, treatment with polyethylenimine (PEI; IONP-PC coating) also resulted in reduced root length (39%) but no change was observed with polyacrylic acid (PAA; IONP-NC coating) treatment alone. However, treatment with IONPs at 3 mg/L did lead to an almost 5% increase in aborted pollen, a 2%–6% reduction in pollen viability and up to an 11% reduction in seed yield depending on the number of treatments. Interestingly, the treated plants did not show any observable phenotypic changes in overall size or general plant structure, indicating that environmental nanoparticle contamination could go dangerously unnoticed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; iron oxide; Arabidopsis thaliana; phytotoxicity; pollen viability; plant development; seed yield nanoparticle; iron oxide; Arabidopsis thaliana; phytotoxicity; pollen viability; plant development; seed yield
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bombin, S.; LeFebvre, M.; Sherwood, J.; Xu, Y.; Bao, Y.; Ramonell, K.M. Developmental and Reproductive Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Arabidopsis thaliana. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24174-24193.

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