Next Article in Journal
Prediction of Multi-Target Networks of Neuroprotective Compounds with Entropy Indices and Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretical Study of New Asymmetric 1,2-Rasagiline Carbamates
Next Article in Special Issue
Comprehensive Analysis of Neonatal versus Adult Unilateral Decortication in a Mouse Model Using Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and DNA Microarray Approaches
Previous Article in Journal
Function of SREBP1 in the Milk Fat Synthesis of Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Association between Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression and Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 17014-17034; doi:10.3390/ijms150917014

PACAP38 Differentially Effects Genes and CRMP2 Protein Expression in Ischemic Core and Penumbra Regions of Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Mice Brain

1
Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
2
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
3
Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
4
Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan
5
Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1779 KB, uploaded 24 September 2014]   |  

Abstract

Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective and axonal guidance functions, but the mechanisms behind such actions remain unclear. Previously we examined effects of PACAP (PACAP38, 1 pmol) injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) along with control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches using ischemic (ipsilateral) brain hemisphere revealed differentially regulated genes and proteins by PACAP38 at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. However, as the ischemic hemisphere consisted of infarct core, penumbra, and non-ischemic regions, specificity of expression and localization of these identified molecular factors remained incomplete. This led us to devise a new experimental strategy wherein, ischemic core and penumbra were carefully sampled and compared to the corresponding contralateral (healthy) core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h post PACAP38 or saline injections. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine targeted gene expressions and the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) protein profiles, respectively. Clear differences in expression of genes and CRMP2 protein abundance and degradation product/short isoform was observed between ischemic core and penumbra and also compared to the contralateral healthy tissues after PACAP38 or saline treatment. Results indicate the importance of region-specific analyses to further identify, localize and functionally analyse target molecular factors for clarifying the neuroprotective function of PACAP38. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic core; penumbra; PACAP38; differential gene expression; Gabra6; S100a5; Il6; Tph2; Prlr; CRMP2 ischemic core; penumbra; PACAP38; differential gene expression; Gabra6; S100a5; Il6; Tph2; Prlr; CRMP2
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hori, M.; Nakamachi, T.; Shibato, J.; Rakwal, R.; Tsuchida, M.; Shioda, S.; Numazawa, S. PACAP38 Differentially Effects Genes and CRMP2 Protein Expression in Ischemic Core and Penumbra Regions of Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Mice Brain. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 17014-17034.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top