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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 16484-16499; doi:10.3390/ijms150916484

A Review of Pinealectomy-Induced Melatonin-Deficient Animal Models for the Study of Etiopathogenesis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Spine Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008, China
3
Joint Scoliosis Research Center of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Nanjing University, Hong Kong, China
4
Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
5
School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
6
Lee Hysan Clinical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 8 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Melatonin 2014)
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Abstract

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common orthopedic disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Melatonin and melatonin pathway dysfunction has been widely suspected to play an important role in the pathogenesis. Many different types of animal models have been developed to induce experimental scoliosis mimicking the pathoanatomical features of idiopathic scoliosis in human. The scoliosis deformity was believed to be induced by pinealectomy and mediated through the resulting melatonin-deficiency. However, the lack of upright mechanical spinal loading and inherent rotational instability of the curvature render the similarity of these models to the human counterparts questionable. Different concerns have been raised challenging the scientific validity and limitations of each model. The objectives of this review follow the logical need to re-examine and compare the relevance and appropriateness of each of the animal models that have been used for studying the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in human in the past 15 to 20 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; melatonin; pinealectomy adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; melatonin; pinealectomy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wai, M.G.C.; Jun, W.W.W.; Yee, Y.A.P.; Ho, W.J.; Bun, N.T.; Ping, L.T.; Man, L.S.K.; Wah, N.B.K.; Chiu, W.C.; Yong, Q.; Yiu, C.J.C. A Review of Pinealectomy-Induced Melatonin-Deficient Animal Models for the Study of Etiopathogenesis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 16484-16499.

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