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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 15146-15160; doi:10.3390/ijms150915146
Review

The Three Integrated Phases of Left Atrial Macrophysiology and Their Interactions

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 26 June 2014; in revised form: 17 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Heart Failure)
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Abstract: Our understanding of the left atrium is growing, although there are many aspects that are still poorly understood. The left atrium size as an imaging biomarker has been consistently shown to be a powerful predictor of outcomes and of different cardiovascular disorders, such as, but not limited to, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, mitral regurgitation and stroke. Left atrial function has been conventionally divided into three integrated phases: reservoir, conduit and booster-pump. The highly dynamic left atrium and its response to the stretch and secretion of atrial neuropeptides leaves the left atrium far from being a simple transport chamber. The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the left atrial physiology and its relation to disorders within the heart.
Keywords: left atrium; macrophysiology; phases; integrated; interactions left atrium; macrophysiology; phases; integrated; interactions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mehrzad, R.; Rajab, M.; Spodick, D.H. The Three Integrated Phases of Left Atrial Macrophysiology and Their Interactions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 15146-15160.

AMA Style

Mehrzad R, Rajab M, Spodick DH. The Three Integrated Phases of Left Atrial Macrophysiology and Their Interactions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(9):15146-15160.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mehrzad, Raman; Rajab, Mohammad; Spodick, David H. 2014. "The Three Integrated Phases of Left Atrial Macrophysiology and Their Interactions." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 9: 15146-15160.


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