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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14372-14385; doi:10.3390/ijms150814372

Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

1
Laboratory Animal Center, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
3
Department of Surgical Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
4
Clinical Research Institute, Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama 241-0815, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05). According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM) than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05). Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05), but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration (p > 0.05). Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05). Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05). It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal carcinoma; Beclin 1; tumorigenesis; pathogenesis; prognosis colorectal carcinoma; Beclin 1; tumorigenesis; pathogenesis; prognosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, M.-Y.; Gou, W.-F.; Zhao, S.; Mao, X.-Y.; Zheng, Z.-H.; Takano, Y.; Zheng, H.-C. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 14372-14385.

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