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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11862-11877; doi:10.3390/ijms150711862
Article

Proanthocyanidin Accumulation and Biosynthesis Are Modulated by the Irrigation Regime in Tempranillo Seeds

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Received: 6 May 2014; in revised form: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols)
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Abstract: The main effects of three different irrigation regimes, i.e., sustained deficit irrigation (SDI), regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and non-irrigated (NI), on seed traits namely proanthocyanidins (PAs) were evaluated in the wine grape cultivar Aragonez (syn. Tempranillo) grown in Alentejo (Portugal) over two growing seasons. Results showed that while the number of seeds per berry was not affected by water availability, seed fresh weight differed among treatments, the NI treatment exhibiting the lowest values. The biosynthetic pathway of flavanols appeared to be modified by the irrigation treatment, and several genes responsible for PA synthesis were up-regulated in the most stressed seeds (RDI and NI). However, this effect had no impact on PA content, suggesting the influence of other factors such as oxidation and/or degradation of PAs at late stages of maturation in grape seeds. The seeds’ non-enzymatic antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical adverting capacity (HORAC)) were modulated by water deficit and correlated well with PA content. The impact of irrigation strategy on PA biosynthesis, content, and anti-radical activity during seed ripening is discussed in the context of increasing interest in the role of PAs in the color and taste of wine, and the potential health benefits relating to their antioxidant capacity.
Keywords: antioxidant capacity; gene expression; regulated deficit irrigation; tannin; Vitis vinifera; water stress antioxidant capacity; gene expression; regulated deficit irrigation; tannin; Vitis vinifera; water stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Genebra, T.; Santos, R.R.; Francisco, R.; Pinto-Marijuan, M.; Brossa, R.; Serra, A.T.; Duarte, C.M.M.; Chaves, M.M.; Zarrouk, O. Proanthocyanidin Accumulation and Biosynthesis Are Modulated by the Irrigation Regime in Tempranillo Seeds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 11862-11877.

AMA Style

Genebra T, Santos RR, Francisco R, Pinto-Marijuan M, Brossa R, Serra AT, Duarte CMM, Chaves MM, Zarrouk O. Proanthocyanidin Accumulation and Biosynthesis Are Modulated by the Irrigation Regime in Tempranillo Seeds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(7):11862-11877.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Genebra, Tania; Santos, Raquen R.; Francisco, Rita; Pinto-Marijuan, Marta; Brossa, Ricard; Serra, Ana T.; Duarte, Catarina M.M.; Chaves, Maria M.; Zarrouk, Olfa. 2014. "Proanthocyanidin Accumulation and Biosynthesis Are Modulated by the Irrigation Regime in Tempranillo Seeds." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 7: 11862-11877.


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