Next Article in Journal
Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice Using Bulked Segregant Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Brain Metastases in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Is there a Role for Surgery?
Previous Article in Journal
Inhibition of TRPM7 Channels Reduces Degranulation and Release of Cytokines in Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Show Increased Expression of DVL1, DVL3 and Beta-Catenin and Down-Regulation of E-Cadherin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11832-11846; doi:10.3390/ijms150711832
Review

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudoprogression, Radiation Necrosis and Brain Tumor Recurrence

1
,
2
 and
1,*
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Metastasis 2014)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [943 KB, uploaded 3 July 2014]   |   Browse Figure

Abstract

Radiation therapy is an important modality used in the treatment of patients with brain metastatic disease and malignant gliomas. Post-treatment surveillance often involves serial magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge faced by clinicians is in the diagnosis and management of a suspicious gadolinium-enhancing lesion found on imaging. The suspicious lesion may represent post-treatment radiation effects (PTRE) such as pseudoprogression, radiation necrosis or tumor recurrence. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic imaging modalities to assist in differentiating these entities. Surgical and medical interventions have also been developed to treat PTRE. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging modalities and provide an algorithm for the management of pseudoprogression, radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence.
Keywords: pseudoprogression; radiation necrosis; metastasis; glioma; recurrence pseudoprogression; radiation necrosis; metastasis; glioma; recurrence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Parvez, K.; Parvez, A.; Zadeh, G. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudoprogression, Radiation Necrosis and Brain Tumor Recurrence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 11832-11846.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert