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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9497-9518; doi:10.3390/ijms15069497
Article

Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System

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Received: 3 December 2013; in revised form: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Abstract: This study provides data to define an efficient biocide-free strategy based on zosteric acid to counteract biofilm formation on the membranes of submerged bioreactor system plants. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that gammaproteobacteria was the prevalent taxa on fouled membranes of an Italian wastewater plant. Pseudomonas was the prevalent genus among the cultivable membrane-fouler bacteria and Pseudomonas putida was selected as the target microorganism to test the efficacy of the antifoulant. Zosteric acid was not a source of carbon and energy for P. putida cells and, at 200 mg/L, it caused a reduction of bacterial coverage by 80%. Biofilm experiments confirmed the compound caused a significant decrease in biomass (−97%) and thickness (−50%), and it induced a migration activity of the peritrichous flagellated P. putida over the polycarbonate surface not amenable to a biofilm phenotype. The low octanol-water partitioning coefficient and the high water solubility suggested a low bioaccumulation potential and the water compartment as its main environmental recipient and capacitor. Preliminary ecotoxicological tests did not highlight direct toxicity effects toward Daphnia magna. For green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata an effect was observed at concentrations above 100 mg/L with a significant growth of protozoa that may be connected to a concurrent algal growth inhibition.
Keywords: antifouling system; biofilm; Pseudomonas putida; wastewater treatment plant; membrane bioreactor; ecotoxicological tests antifouling system; biofilm; Pseudomonas putida; wastewater treatment plant; membrane bioreactor; ecotoxicological tests
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polo, A.; Foladori, P.; Ponti, B.; Bettinetti, R.; Gambino, M.; Villa, F.; Cappitelli, F. Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9497-9518.

AMA Style

Polo A, Foladori P, Ponti B, Bettinetti R, Gambino M, Villa F, Cappitelli F. Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(6):9497-9518.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polo, Andrea; Foladori, Paola; Ponti, Benedetta; Bettinetti, Roberta; Gambino, Michela; Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca. 2014. "Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 9497-9518.



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