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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9184-9208; doi:10.3390/ijms15069184
Review

Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection

1,2,* , 1,2
, 1
, 1
 and 1
Received: 30 March 2014; in revised form: 15 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
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Abstract: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several studies have shown that HIV infection promotes accelerated HCV hepatic fibrosis progression, even with HIV replication under full antiretroviral control. The pathogenesis of accelerated hepatic fibrosis among HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is complex and multifactorial. The most relevant mechanisms involved include direct viral effects, immune/cytokine dysregulation, altered levels of matrix metalloproteinases and fibrosis biomarkers, increased oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, HIV-associated gut depletion of CD4 cells, and microbial translocation. In addition, metabolic alterations, heavy alcohol use, as well drug use, may have a potential role in liver disease progression. Understanding the pathophysiology and regulation of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for the management of all patients with ongoing liver disease. In this review, we therefore discuss the evidence and potential molecular mechanisms involved in the accelerated liver fibrosis seen in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV.
Keywords: HIV; HCV; liver fibrosis; cytokines; microbial translocation; matrix metalloproteinases HIV; HCV; liver fibrosis; cytokines; microbial translocation; matrix metalloproteinases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mastroianni, C.M.; Lichtner, M.; Mascia, C.; Zuccalà, P.; Vullo, V. Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9184-9208.

AMA Style

Mastroianni CM, Lichtner M, Mascia C, Zuccalà P, Vullo V. Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(6):9184-9208.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mastroianni, Claudio M.; Lichtner, Miriam; Mascia, Claudia; Zuccalà, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo. 2014. "Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 9184-9208.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert