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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8372-8392; doi:10.3390/ijms15058372
Article

Functional Annotation of Proteomic Data from Chicken Heterophils and Macrophages Induced by Carbon Nanotube Exposure

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Received: 17 March 2014; in revised form: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Abstract: With the expanding applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedicine and agriculture, questions about the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT in humans and domestic animals are becoming matters of serious concern. This study used proteomic methods to profile gene expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in response to CNT exposure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 12 proteins in macrophages and 15 in heterophils, with differential expression patterns in response to CNT co-incubation (0, 1, 10, and 100 µg/mL of CNT for 6 h) (p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins are associated with protein interactions, cellular metabolic processes, and cell mobility, suggesting activation of innate immune functions. Western blot analysis with heat shock protein 70, high mobility group protein, and peptidylprolyl isomerase A confirmed the alterations of the profiled proteins. The functional annotations were further confirmed by effective cell migration, promoted interleukin-1β secretion, and more cell death in both macrophages and heterophils exposed to CNT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that CNT exposure affects protein expression, leading to activation of macrophages and heterophils, resulting in altered cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration, and cytokine production, and thereby mediates tissue immune responses.
Keywords: carbon nanotube; macrophage; heterophil; protein expression; cell migration; chicken carbon nanotube; macrophage; heterophil; protein expression; cell migration; chicken
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.-Z.; Cheng, C.-S.; Chen, C.-J.; Li, Z.-L.; Lin, Y.-T.; Chen, S.-E.; Huang, S.-Y. Functional Annotation of Proteomic Data from Chicken Heterophils and Macrophages Induced by Carbon Nanotube Exposure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8372-8392.

AMA Style

Li Y-Z, Cheng C-S, Chen C-J, Li Z-L, Lin Y-T, Chen S-E, Huang S-Y. Functional Annotation of Proteomic Data from Chicken Heterophils and Macrophages Induced by Carbon Nanotube Exposure. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(5):8372-8392.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yun-Ze; Cheng, Chung-Shi; Chen, Chao-Jung; Li, Zi-Lin; Lin, Yao-Tung; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan. 2014. "Functional Annotation of Proteomic Data from Chicken Heterophils and Macrophages Induced by Carbon Nanotube Exposure." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 5: 8372-8392.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert