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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8256-8279; doi:10.3390/ijms15058256
Article

Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

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Received: 12 March 2014; in revised form: 20 April 2014 / Accepted: 23 April 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry Application in Biology)
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Abstract: Phosphatidycholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes but it has been found in only a limited number of prokaryotes. Bacteria synthesize PC via the phospholipid N-methylation pathway (Pmt) or via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway (Pcs) or both. Here, we demonstrated that Legionella dumoffii has the ability to utilize exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis when bacteria grow in the presence of choline. The Pcs seems to be a primary pathway for synthesis of this phospholipid in L. dumoffii. Structurally different PC species were distributed in the outer and inner membranes. As shown by the LC/ESI-MS analyses, PC15:0/15:0, PC16:0/15:0, and PC17:0/17:1 were identified in the outer membrane and PC14:0/16:0, PC16:0/17:1, and PC20:0/15:0 in the inner membrane. L. dumoffii pcsA gene encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase revealed the highest sequence identity to pcsA of L. bozemanae (82%) and L. longbeachae (81%) and lower identity to pcsA of L. drancourtii (78%) and L. pneumophila (71%). The level of TNF-α in THP1-differentiated cells induced by live and temperature-killed L. dumoffii cultured on a medium supplemented with choline was assessed. Live L. dumoffii bacteria cultured on the choline-supplemented medium induced TNF-α three-fold less efficiently than cells grown on the non-supplemented medium. There is an evident effect of PC modification, which impairs the macrophage inflammatory response.
Keywords: LC/ESI-MS; MALDI-TOF; Legionella dumoffii; phosphatidylcholine; TNF-α LC/ESI-MS; MALDI-TOF; Legionella dumoffii; phosphatidylcholine; TNF-α
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palusinska-Szysz, M.; Szuster-Ciesielska, A.; Kania, M.; Janczarek, M.; Chmiel, E.; Danikiewicz, W. Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8256-8279.

AMA Style

Palusinska-Szysz M, Szuster-Ciesielska A, Kania M, Janczarek M, Chmiel E, Danikiewicz W. Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(5):8256-8279.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kania, Magdalena; Janczarek, Monika; Chmiel, Elżbieta; Danikiewicz, Witold. 2014. "Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 5: 8256-8279.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert