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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7827-7840; doi:10.3390/ijms15057827

Treatment with Panax Ginseng Antagonizes the Estrogen Decline in Ovariectomized Mice

1
Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Dongcheng District, Dongzhimen Nanxiao Road 16, Beijing 100700, China
2
Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Renmin Road 5625, Changchun 130022, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Ginseng is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms; however, no conclusive scientific data has shown ginseng as being efficient in such therapies. The present study was designed to evaluate the estrogenic efficacy of ginseng on reproductive target tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The OVX mice were treated with ginseng at doses of 12.0, 18.0 and 24.0 g/kg per day for four weeks. Ginseng treatments restored the estrus cycle and demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by the reversal of the atrophy of the uterus and vagina, upregulation of estrogen receptor (ER) α and ER β expression at the protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues, where ER α upregulation was stronger than that of ER β. Meanwhile, treatment with ginseng significantly increased adrenal gland weight and serum estradiol and clearly decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in circulation. Notably, the largest changes in these parameters were found at the highest dose of 24.0 g/kg. Moreover, ginseng at 18.0 g/kg resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. The data suggest that ginseng estrogenic responses show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for ginseng components. This study demonstrates that ginseng activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides further evidence for ginseng treatment of postmenopausal symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginseng; estrogenic activity; uterus; vagina; ER α; ER β ginseng; estrogenic activity; uterus; vagina; ER α; ER β
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, Y.; Ding, J.; Ma, X.-P.; Ma, Y.-H.; Liu, Z.-Q.; Lin, N. Treatment with Panax Ginseng Antagonizes the Estrogen Decline in Ovariectomized Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 7827-7840.

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