Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7485-7499; doi:10.3390/ijms15057485
Article

The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange

1,2,†email, 2,* email, 2,†email, 3email, 4email, 4email, 5email, 6email, 6email, 7email, 8email and 8,†email
Received: 14 March 2014; in revised form: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Toxicity of Dioxins and Related Compounds)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64), and octaCDD (β = 0.65) were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34) and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42). The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38) was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents); R2 = 0.23). This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid) is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency.
Keywords: dioxins; furans; congener; sister chromatid exchange; Vietnam
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MDPI and ACS Style

Suzuki, H.; Kido, T.; Okamoto, R.; Nhu, D.D.; Nishijo, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Tawara, K.; Horikawa, H.; Sato, Y.; Dung, P.T.; Thom, L.H.; Hung, N.N. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 7485-7499.

AMA Style

Suzuki H, Kido T, Okamoto R, Nhu DD, Nishijo M, Nakagawa H, Tawara K, Horikawa H, Sato Y, Dung PT, Thom LH, Hung NN. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(5):7485-7499.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Nhu, Dang D.; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tawara, Kenji; Horikawa, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Dung, Phung T.; Thom, Le H.; Hung, Nguyen N. 2014. "The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 5: 7485-7499.


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