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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6625-6640; doi:10.3390/ijms15046625
Article

Melatonin Prevents Chemical-Induced Haemopoietic Cell Death

1,* , 1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
2
 and
1,2
1 DiSTeVA, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Urbino 61029, Italy 2 IGM, CNR, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna 40136, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
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Abstract

Melatonin (MEL), a methoxyindole synthesized by the pineal gland, is a powerful antioxidant in tissues as well as within cells, with a fundamental role in ameliorating homeostasis in a number of specific pathologies. It acts both as a direct radical scavenger and by stimulating production/activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. In this work, some chemical triggers, with different mechanisms of action, have been chosen to induce cell death in U937 hematopoietic cell line. Cells were pre-treated with 100 µM MEL and then exposed to hydrogen peroxide or staurosporine. Morphological analyses, TUNEL reaction and Orange/PI double staining have been used to recognize ultrastructural apoptotic patterns and to evaluate DNA behavior. Chemical damage and potential MEL anti-apoptotic effects were quantified by means of Tali® Image-Based Cytometer, able to monitor cell viability and apoptotic events. After trigger exposure, chromatin condensation, micronuclei formation and DNA fragmentation have been observed, all suggesting apoptotic cell death. These events underwent a statistically significant decrease in samples pre-treated with MEL. After caspase inhibition and subsequent assessment of cell viability, we demonstrated that apoptosis occurs, at least in part, through the mitochondrial pathway and that MEL interacts at this level to rescue U937 cells from death.
Keywords: chemical triggers; melatonin; apoptosis; U937 chemical triggers; melatonin; apoptosis; U937
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Salucci, S.; Burattini, S.; Battistelli, M.; Baldassarri, V.; Curzi, D.; Valmori, A.; Falcieri, E. Melatonin Prevents Chemical-Induced Haemopoietic Cell Death. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 6625-6640.

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