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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 5916-5927; doi:10.3390/ijms15045916

Toxicity and Metabolism of Layered Double Hydroxide Intercalated with Levodopa in a Parkinson’s Disease Model

1
Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutic, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
UPM MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
3
Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Pharmacology Unit, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
5
Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
6
Faculty of pharmacy, Isra'a University, P.O. Box 22, Amman 11622, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 9 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterial Sciences)
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Abstract

Layered hydroxide nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, and less toxic than most inorganic nanoparticles, making them an acceptable alternative drug delivery system. Due to growing concern over animal welfare and the expense of in vivo experiments both the public and the government are interested to find alternatives to animal testing. The toxicity potential of zinc aluminum layered hydroxide (ZAL) nanocomposite containing anti-Parkinsonian agent may be determined using a PC 12 cell model. ZAL nanocomposite demonstrated a decreased cytotoxic effect when compared to levodopa on PC12 cells with more than 80% cell viability at 100 µg/mL compared to less than 20% cell viability in a direct levodopa exposure. Neither levodopa-loaded nanocomposite nor the un-intercalated nanocomposite disturbed the cytoskeletal structure of the neurogenic cells at their IC50 concentration. Levodopa metabolite (HVA) released from the nanocomposite demonstrated the slow sustained and controlled release character of layered hydroxide nanoparticles unlike the burst uptake and release system shown with pure levodopa treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc-aluminum; nanocomposite; cytotoxicity; PC 12; levodopa; LDH zinc-aluminum; nanocomposite; cytotoxicity; PC 12; levodopa; LDH
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kura, A.U.; Ain, N.M.; Hussein, M.Z.; Fakurazi, S.; Hussein-Al-Ali, S.H. Toxicity and Metabolism of Layered Double Hydroxide Intercalated with Levodopa in a Parkinson’s Disease Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 5916-5927.

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