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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 5874-5883; doi:10.3390/ijms15045874

Effects of Neuropeptides and Mechanical Loading on Bone Cell Resorption in Vitro

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells 2014)
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Abstract

Neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are present in nerve fibers of bone tissues and have been suggested to potentially regulate bone remodeling. Oscillatory fluid flow (OFF)-induced shear stress is a potent signal in mechanotransduction that is capable of regulating both anabolic and catabolic bone remodeling. However, the interaction between neuropeptides and mechanical induction in bone remodeling is poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to quantify the effects of combined neuropeptides and mechanical stimuli on mRNA and protein expression related to bone resorption. Neuropeptides (VIP or CGRP) and/or OFF-induced shear stress were applied to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells and changes in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA and protein levels were quantified. Neuropeptides and OFF-induced shear stress similarly decreased RANKL and increased OPG levels compared to control. Changes were not further enhanced with combined neuropeptides and OFF-induced shear stress. These results suggest that neuropeptides CGRP and VIP have an important role in suppressing bone resorptive activities through RANKL/OPG pathway, similar to mechanical loading.
Keywords: neuropeptides; mechanical loading; bone resorption; RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand); OPG (osteoprotegerin) neuropeptides; mechanical loading; bone resorption; RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand); OPG (osteoprotegerin)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoo, Y.-M.; Kwag, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, C.H. Effects of Neuropeptides and Mechanical Loading on Bone Cell Resorption in Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 5874-5883.

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