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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4077-4087; doi:10.3390/ijms15034077

Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

1
Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/José Antonio Novais 10, Madrid 28040, Spain
2
Department of Toxicology and Health Legislation, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza de Ramón y Cajal, Madrid 28040, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
Keywords: iron deficiency; red meat consumption; menstrual blood loss; SNP; HFE gene; menstruating women iron deficiency; red meat consumption; menstrual blood loss; SNP; HFE gene; menstruating women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Blanco-Rojo, R.; Toxqui, L.; López-Parra, A.M.; Baeza-Richer, C.; Pérez-Granados, A.M.; Arroyo-Pardo, E.; Vaquero, M.P. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 4077-4087.

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