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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4077-4087; doi:10.3390/ijms15034077
Article

Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

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Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
Keywords: iron deficiency; red meat consumption; menstrual blood loss; SNP; HFE gene; menstruating women iron deficiency; red meat consumption; menstrual blood loss; SNP; HFE gene; menstruating women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Blanco-Rojo, R.; Toxqui, L.; López-Parra, A.M.; Baeza-Richer, C.; Pérez-Granados, A.M.; Arroyo-Pardo, E.; Vaquero, M.P. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 4077-4087.

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