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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4938-4945; doi:10.3390/ijms15034938
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Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand?

†,* ,
 and
Received: 19 February 2014; in revised form: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
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Abstract: There is a pandemic of obesity and associated chronic diseases. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have many extra-skeletal roles in human health. In this review we have summarized the current understanding of their influence on human energy balance by examining the epidemiological, clinical, animal, cellular and molecular evidence. We opine that while calcium and vitamin D are functional nutrients in the battle against obesity, there is a need for prospective human trials to tilt the balance of evidence in favour of these nutrients.
Keywords: calcium; vitamin D; obesity; energy balance; chronic disease calcium; vitamin D; obesity; energy balance; chronic disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Soares, M.J.; Pathak, K.; Calton, E.K. Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 4938-4945.

AMA Style

Soares MJ, Pathak K, Calton EK. Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(3):4938-4945.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soares, Mario J.; Pathak, Kaveri; Calton, Emily K. 2014. "Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 3: 4938-4945.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert