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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4938-4945; doi:10.3390/ijms15034938

Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand?

†,* ,
Directorate of Nutrition, Dietetics & Food Science, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia These authors contribute equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 February 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
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There is a pandemic of obesity and associated chronic diseases. Dietary calcium and vitamin D have many extra-skeletal roles in human health. In this review we have summarized the current understanding of their influence on human energy balance by examining the epidemiological, clinical, animal, cellular and molecular evidence. We opine that while calcium and vitamin D are functional nutrients in the battle against obesity, there is a need for prospective human trials to tilt the balance of evidence in favour of these nutrients.
Keywords: calcium; vitamin D; obesity; energy balance; chronic disease calcium; vitamin D; obesity; energy balance; chronic disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Soares, M.J.; Pathak, K.; Calton, E.K. Calcium and Vitamin D in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Where Do We Stand? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 4938-4945.

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