Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3952-3969; doi:10.3390/ijms15033952

Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival

1,* email, 1email and 1,2email
Received: 17 January 2014; in revised form: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Eosinophils are abundantly present in most phenotypes of asthma and they contribute to the maintenance and exacerbations of the disease. Regulators of eosinophil longevity play critical roles in determining whether eosinophils accumulate into the airways of asthmatics. Several cytokines enhance eosinophil survival promoting eosinophilic airway inflammation while for example glucocorticoids, the most important anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat asthma, promote the intrinsic pathway of eosinophil apoptosis and by this mechanism contribute to the resolution of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Mitochondria seem to play central roles in both intrinsic mitochondrion-centered and extrinsic receptor-mediated pathways of apoptosis in eosinophils. Mitochondria may also be important for survival signalling. In addition to glucocorticoids, another important agent that regulates human eosinophil longevity via mitochondrial route is nitric oxide, which is present in increased amounts in the airways of asthmatics. Nitric oxide seems to be able to trigger both survival and apoptosis in eosinophils. This review discusses the current evidence of the mechanisms of induced eosinophil apoptosis and survival focusing on the role of mitochondria and clinically relevant stimulants, such as glucocorticoids and nitric oxide.
Keywords: asthma; eosinophil; apoptosis; survival; mitochondrial permeability transition; reactive oxygen species; mitochondria; glucocorticoids; nitric oxide; mitogen-activated protein kinase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ilmarinen, P.; Moilanen, E.; Kankaanranta, H. Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3952-3969.

AMA Style

Ilmarinen P, Moilanen E, Kankaanranta H. Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(3):3952-3969.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ilmarinen, Pinja; Moilanen, Eeva; Kankaanranta, Hannu. 2014. "Mitochondria in the Center of Human Eosinophil Apoptosis and Survival." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 3: 3952-3969.

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