Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3711-3728; doi:10.3390/ijms15033711
Article

Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

Received: 27 December 2013; in revised form: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB.
Keywords: Panonychus citri; chitin synthase 1; diflubenzuron; insect growth regulators; pest control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xia, W.-K.; Ding, T.-B.; Niu, J.-Z.; Liao, C.-Y.; Zhong, R.; Yang, W.-J.; Liu, B.; Dou, W.; Wang, J.-J. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3711-3728.

AMA Style

Xia W-K, Ding T-B, Niu J-Z, Liao C-Y, Zhong R, Yang W-J, Liu B, Dou W, Wang J-J. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(3):3711-3728.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun. 2014. "Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 3: 3711-3728.

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