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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 3660-3670; doi:10.3390/ijms15033660
Communication

A Proteomic Approach of Bradyrhizobium/Aeschynomene Root and Stem Symbioses Reveals the Importance of the fixA Locus for Symbiosis

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4,*  and 2,4,*
1 Institute of Microbiology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 4, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland 2 Institut des Sciences du Végétal, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France 3 Département de Biologie, Université Paris Sud, 91400 Orsay, France 4 Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes, IRD, UMR IRD/SupAgro/INRA/UM2/CIRAD, F-34398 Montpellier, France
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
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Abstract

Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are able to form symbiosis with plant hosts of the legume family. These associations result in the formation of organs, called nodules in which bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen to the benefit of the plant. Most of our knowledge on the metabolism and the physiology of the bacteria during symbiosis derives from studying roots nodules of terrestrial plants. Here we used a proteomics approach to investigate the bacterial physiology of photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278 during the symbiotic process with the semi aquatical plant Aeschynomene indica that forms root and stem nodules. We analyzed the proteomes of bacteria extracted from each type of nodule. First, we analyzed the bacteroid proteome at two different time points and found only minor variation between the bacterial proteomes of 2-week- and 3-week-old nodules. High conservation of the bacteroid proteome was also found when comparing stem nodules and root nodules. Among the stem nodule specific proteins were those related to the phototrophic ability of Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278. Furthermore, we compared our data with those obtained during an extensive genetic screen previously published. The symbiotic role of four candidate genes which corresponding proteins were found massively produced in the nodules but not identified during this screening was examined. Mutant analysis suggested that in addition to the EtfAB system, the fixA locus is required for symbiotic efficiency.
Keywords: proteome; photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium; symbiotic nitrogen fixation; stem nodulation; fixA proteome; photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium; symbiotic nitrogen fixation; stem nodulation; fixA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Delmotte, N.; Mondy, S.; Alunni, B.; Fardoux, J.; Chaintreuil, C.; Vorholt, J.A.; Giraud, E.; Gourion, B. A Proteomic Approach of Bradyrhizobium/Aeschynomene Root and Stem Symbioses Reveals the Importance of the fixA Locus for Symbiosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3660-3670.

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