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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3040-3063; doi:10.3390/ijms15023040
Article

Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues

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Received: 7 October 2013; in revised form: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
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Abstract: Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation.
Keywords: adipokines; α-SMA; TGF-β1; MCP1; dietary fat source adipokines; α-SMA; TGF-β1; MCP1; dietary fat source
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lionetti, L.; Mollica, M.P.; Sica, R.; Donizzetti, I.; Gifuni, G.; Pignalosa, A.; Cavaliere, G.; Putti, R. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3040-3063.

AMA Style

Lionetti L, Mollica MP, Sica R, Donizzetti I, Gifuni G, Pignalosa A, Cavaliere G, Putti R. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(2):3040-3063.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria P.; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba. 2014. "Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 2: 3040-3063.


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