Abstract: Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation.
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Lionetti, L.; Mollica, M.P.; Sica, R.; Donizzetti, I.; Gifuni, G.; Pignalosa, A.; Cavaliere, G.; Putti, R. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3040-3063.
Lionetti L, Mollica MP, Sica R, Donizzetti I, Gifuni G, Pignalosa A, Cavaliere G, Putti R. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(2):3040-3063.
Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria P.; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba. 2014. "Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 2: 3040-3063.