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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 3040-3063; doi:10.3390/ijms15023040

Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues

Department of Biology, Via Mezzocannone 8, University of Naples "Federico II", 80134 Naples, Italy These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Control of Metabolism)
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Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation.
Keywords: adipokines; α-SMA; TGF-β1; MCP1; dietary fat source adipokines; α-SMA; TGF-β1; MCP1; dietary fat source
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lionetti, L.; Mollica, M.P.; Sica, R.; Donizzetti, I.; Gifuni, G.; Pignalosa, A.; Cavaliere, G.; Putti, R. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 3040-3063.

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