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International Journal of Molecular Science Best Paper Award 2014
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 1686-1699; doi:10.3390/ijms15021686
Article

Chronic Exposure to Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Extract Lycogen™ Prevents UVA-Induced Malondialdehyde Accumulation and Procollagen I Down-Regulation in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

1,†
, 2,†
, 1
, 3,4
, 1
 and 5,*
1 Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan 2 Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan 3 Asia-Pacific Biotech Developing, Inc., Kaohsiung 80681, Taiwan 4 Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan 5 Department and Institute of Cosmetic Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 23 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

UVA contributes to the pathogenesis of skin aging by downregulation of procollagen I content and induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-associated responses. Application of antioxidants such as lycopene has been demonstrated as a convenient way to achieve protection against skin aging. Lycogen™, derived from the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, exerts several biological effects similar to that of lycopene whereas most of its anti-aging efficacy remains uncertain. In this study, we attempted to examine whether Lycogen™ could suppress malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and restore downregulated procollagen I expression induced by UVA exposure. In human dermal fibroblasts Hs68 cells, UVA repressed cell viability and decreased procollagen I protein content accompanied with the induction of MMP-1 and MDA accumulation. Remarkably, incubation with 50 µM Lycogen™ for 24 h ameliorated UVA-induced cell death and restored UVA-induced downregulation of procollagen in a dose-related manner. Lycogen™ treatment also prevented the UVA-induced MMP-1 upregulation and intracellular MDA generation in Hs68 cells. Activation of NFκB levels, one of the downstream events induced by UVA irradiation and MMP-1 induction, were also prevented by Lycogen™ administration. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Lycogen™ may be an alternative agent that prevents UVA-induced skin aging and could be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.
Keywords: Lycogen™; skin aging; UVA; procollagen I; matrix metalloproteinase Lycogen™; skin aging; UVA; procollagen I; matrix metalloproteinase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, T.-H.; Lai, Y.-H.; Lin, T.-P.; Liu, W.-S.; Kuan, L.-C.; Liu, C.-C. Chronic Exposure to Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Extract Lycogen™ Prevents UVA-Induced Malondialdehyde Accumulation and Procollagen I Down-Regulation in Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 1686-1699.

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