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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 21803-21824; doi:10.3390/ijms151221803

Physiological and Proteomic Analysis in Chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under Silicon Efficiency and Salinity Stress

1
Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea
2
Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea
3
Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
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Abstract

Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si) supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis) revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs) such as photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII) to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs) were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome expression after silicon supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue-native page; chloroplast proteome; photosynthetic metabolism; salinity stress; silicon supplementation; Solanum lycopersicum blue-native page; chloroplast proteome; photosynthetic metabolism; salinity stress; silicon supplementation; Solanum lycopersicum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Muneer, S.; Park, Y.G.; Manivannan, A.; Soundararajan, P.; Jeong, B.R. Physiological and Proteomic Analysis in Chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under Silicon Efficiency and Salinity Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 21803-21824.

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