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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 19018-19036; doi:10.3390/ijms151019018

Exercise Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Upregulating Neuronal and Astroglial Heat Shock Protein 72

1
Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2
Neurosurgical Department, Taipei Medical University Shuang-Ho Hospital, Taipei 235, Taiwan
3
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
4
Department of Leisure Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
5
Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan
6
Department of Emergency Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
7
Department of Radiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan 736, Taiwan
8
Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

The heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) is a universal marker of stress protein whose expression can be induced by physical exercise. Here we report that, in a localized model of spinal cord injury (SCI), exercised rats (given pre-SCI exercise) had significantly higher levels of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, a lower functional deficit, fewer spinal cord contusions, and fewer apoptotic cells than did non-exercised rats. pSUPER plasmid expressing HSP 72 small interfering RNA (SiRNA-HSP 72) was injected into the injured spinal cords. In addition to reducing neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, the (SiRNA-HSP 72) significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of exercise preconditioning in reducing functional deficits as well as spinal cord contusion and apoptosis. Because exercise preconditioning induces increased neuronal and astroglial levels of HSP 72 in the gray matter of normal spinal cord tissue, exercise preconditioning promoted functional recovery in rats after SCI by upregulating neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in the gray matter of the injured spinal cord. We reveal an important function of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in protecting neuronal and astroglial apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. We conclude that HSP 72-mediated exercise preconditioning is a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from SCI. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal cord compression; neurological severity score; heat shock protein 72; exercise preconditioning spinal cord compression; neurological severity score; heat shock protein 72; exercise preconditioning
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, C.-K.; Chou, W.; Lin, H.-J.; Huang, Y.-C.; Tang, L.-Y.; Lin, M.-T.; Chang, C.-P. Exercise Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Upregulating Neuronal and Astroglial Heat Shock Protein 72. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 19018-19036.

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