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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18677-18692; doi:10.3390/ijms151018677

Molecular Mechanisms for the Regulation of Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake by Small Guanosine Triphosphatases in Skeletal Muscle and Adipocytes

Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan
Received: 3 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
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Abstract

Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood glucose level by stimulating various physiological responses in its target tissues. In skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, insulin promotes membrane trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from GLUT4 storage vesicles to the plasma membrane, thereby facilitating the uptake of glucose from the circulation. Detailed mechanisms underlying insulin-dependent intracellular signal transduction for glucose uptake remain largely unknown. In this article, I give an overview on the recently identified signaling network involving Rab, Ras, and Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that regulates glucose uptake in insulin-responsive tissues. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms for these small GTPases and the cross-talk between protein kinase and small GTPase cascades are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipocyte; glucose uptake; GLUT4; insulin; skeletal muscle; small GTPase adipocyte; glucose uptake; GLUT4; insulin; skeletal muscle; small GTPase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Satoh, T. Molecular Mechanisms for the Regulation of Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake by Small Guanosine Triphosphatases in Skeletal Muscle and Adipocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 18677-18692.

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