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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18659-18676; doi:10.3390/ijms151018659

Calcium Signaling and Meiotic Exit at Fertilization in Xenopus Egg

1
Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
2
Department of Biochemistry, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
3
Department of Molecular Biosciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Sperm-Egg Interaction)
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Abstract

Calcium is a universal messenger that mediates egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species studied. However, signaling pathways leading to calcium generation and the mechanisms of calcium-induced exit from meiotic arrest vary substantially among species. Here, we review the pathways of calcium signaling and the mechanisms of meiotic exit at fertilization in the eggs of the established developmental model, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We also discuss calcium involvement in the early fertilization-induced events in Xenopus egg, such as membrane depolarization, the increase in intracellular pH, cortical granule exocytosis, cortical contraction, contraction wave, cortical rotation, reformation of the nuclear envelope, sperm chromatin decondensation and sister chromatid segregation. View Full-Text
Keywords: eggs; fertilization; activation; calcium; Xenopus laevis eggs; fertilization; activation; calcium; Xenopus laevis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tokmakov, A.A.; Stefanov, V.E.; Iwasaki, T.; Sato, K.-I.; Fukami, Y. Calcium Signaling and Meiotic Exit at Fertilization in Xenopus Egg. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 18659-18676.

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