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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 725-742; doi:10.3390/ijms15010725

An Improved MLVF Method and Its Comparison with Traditional MLVF, spa Typing, MLST/SCCmec and PFGE for the Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Clinical Laboratory, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, No. 37, Yiyuan Street, Nangang, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China
2
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1, Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng, Beijing 100730, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 8 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an important nosocomial pathogen, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. During the last 20 years, a variety of genotyping methods have been introduced for screening the prevalence of MRSA. In this study, we developed and evaluated an improved approach capillary gel electrophoresis based multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (CGE/MLVF) for rapid MRSA typing. A total of 42 well-characterized strains and 116 non-repetitive clinical MRSA isolates collected from six hospitals in northeast China between 2009 and 2010 were tested. The results obtained by CGE/MLVF against clinical isolates were compared with traditional MLVF, spa typing, Multilocus sequence typing/ staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (MLST/SCCmec) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The discriminatory power estimated by Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.855 (28 types), 0.855 (28 patterns), 0.623 (11 types), 0.517 (8 types) and 0.854 (28 patterns) for CGE/MLVF, traditional MLVF, spa typing, MLST/SCCmec and PFGE, respectively. All methods tested showed a satisfied concordance in clonal complex level calculated by adjusted Rand’s coefficient. CGE/MLVF showed better reproducibility and accuracy than traditional MLVF and PFGE methods. In addition, the CGE/MLVF has potential to produce portable results. In conclusion, CGE/MLVF is a rapid and easy to use MRSA typing method with lower cost, good reproducibility and high discriminatory power for monitoring the outbreak and clonal spread of MRSA isolates.
Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); genotyping; multilocus variable-number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF); capillary gel electrophoresis; pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Multilocus sequence typing (MLST); staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); genotyping; multilocus variable-number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF); capillary gel electrophoresis; pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); Multilocus sequence typing (MLST); staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Du, X.-F.; Xiao, M.; Liang, H.-Y.; Sun, Z.; Jiang, Y.-H.; Chen, G.-Y.; Meng, X.-Y.; Zou, G.-L.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Y.-L.; Zhang, H.; Sun, H.-L.; Jiang, X.-F.; Xu, Y.-C. An Improved MLVF Method and Its Comparison with Traditional MLVF, spa Typing, MLST/SCCmec and PFGE for the Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 725-742.

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