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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 309-341; doi:10.3390/ijms15010309
Review

Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

1,*  and 2
Received: 10 November 2013; in revised form: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology and Treatment of Central Nervous System Diseases)
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Abstract: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways.
Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI); inflammation; seizure; excitotoxicity; treatment Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI); inflammation; seizure; excitotoxicity; treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Algattas, H.; Huang, J.H. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 309-341.

AMA Style

Algattas H, Huang JH. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(1):309-341.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Algattas, Hanna; Huang, Jason H. 2014. "Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 1: 309-341.


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