Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 23390-23401; doi:10.3390/ijms141223390
Review

Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application

1 Department of Neurological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan 2 Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida College Medicine, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2013; in revised form: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathology and Treatment of Central Nervous System Diseases)
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Abstract: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which presents with various forms of seizures. Traditional treatments, including medication using antiepileptic drugs, remain the treatment of choice for epilepsy. Recent development in surgical techniques and approaches has improved treatment outcomes. However, several epileptic patients still suffer from intractable seizures despite the advent of the multimodality of therapies. In this article, we initially provide an overview of clinical presentation of epilepsy then describe clinically relevant animal models of epilepsy. Subsequently, we discuss the concepts of regenerative medicine including cell therapy, neuroprotective agents, and electrical stimulation, which are reviewed within the context of our data.
Keywords: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); electrical stimulation; erythropoietin; GABAergic neuron; kainic acid; kindling; neural stem cell

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yasuhara, T.; Agari, T.; Kameda, M.; Kondo, A.; Kuramoto, S.; Jing, M.; Sasaki, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Sasada, S.; Sato, K.; Shinko, A.; Wakamori, T.; Okuma, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tajiri, N.; Borlongan, C.V.; Date, I. Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23390-23401.

AMA Style

Yasuhara T, Agari T, Kameda M, Kondo A, Kuramoto S, Jing M, Sasaki T, Toyoshima A, Sasada S, Sato K, Shinko A, Wakamori T, Okuma Y, Miyoshi Y, Tajiri N, Borlongan CV, Date I. Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):23390-23401.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yasuhara, Takao; Agari, Takashi; Kameda, Masahiro; Kondo, Akihiko; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Jing, Meng; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Toyoshima, Atsuhiko; Sasada, Susumu; Sato, Kenichiro; Shinko, Aiko; Wakamori, Takaaki; Okuma, Yu; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesario V.; Date, Isao. 2013. "Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 23390-23401.

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