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Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application
Department of Neurological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida College Medicine, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2013; in revised form: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Abstract: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which presents with various forms of seizures. Traditional treatments, including medication using antiepileptic drugs, remain the treatment of choice for epilepsy. Recent development in surgical techniques and approaches has improved treatment outcomes. However, several epileptic patients still suffer from intractable seizures despite the advent of the multimodality of therapies. In this article, we initially provide an overview of clinical presentation of epilepsy then describe clinically relevant animal models of epilepsy. Subsequently, we discuss the concepts of regenerative medicine including cell therapy, neuroprotective agents, and electrical stimulation, which are reviewed within the context of our data.
Keywords: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); electrical stimulation; erythropoietin; GABAergic neuron; kainic acid; kindling; neural stem cell
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Yasuhara, T.; Agari, T.; Kameda, M.; Kondo, A.; Kuramoto, S.; Jing, M.; Sasaki, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Sasada, S.; Sato, K.; Shinko, A.; Wakamori, T.; Okuma, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tajiri, N.; Borlongan, C.V.; Date, I. Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23390-23401.
Yasuhara T, Agari T, Kameda M, Kondo A, Kuramoto S, Jing M, Sasaki T, Toyoshima A, Sasada S, Sato K, Shinko A, Wakamori T, Okuma Y, Miyoshi Y, Tajiri N, Borlongan CV, Date I. Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):23390-23401.
Yasuhara, Takao; Agari, Takashi; Kameda, Masahiro; Kondo, Akihiko; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Jing, Meng; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Toyoshima, Atsuhiko; Sasada, Susumu; Sato, Kenichiro; Shinko, Aiko; Wakamori, Takaaki; Okuma, Yu; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesario V.; Date, Isao. 2013. "Regenerative Medicine for Epilepsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Application." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 23390-23401.