Abstract: Chloride channels (ClCs) have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies.
Keywords: ClCs; ClC-2; ClC-2 channels; ClC-2 chloride channelopathies
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Bi, M.M.; Hong, S.; Zhou, H.Y.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, L.N.; Zheng, Y.J. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 218-249.
Bi MM, Hong S, Zhou HY, Wang HW, Wang LN, Zheng YJ. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(1):218-249.
Bi, Miao M.; Hong, Sen; Zhou, Hong Y.; Wang, Hong W.; Wang, Li N.; Zheng, Ya J. 2014. "Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 1: 218-249.