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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 1402-1417; doi:10.3390/ijms15011402
Article

Phenoxybenzamine Is Neuroprotective in a Rat Model of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

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Received: 25 November 2013; in revised form: 1 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Abstract: Phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) is an FDA approved α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist that is currently used to treat symptoms of pheochromocytoma. However, it has not been studied as a neuroprotective agent for traumatic brain injury (TBI). While screening neuroprotective candidates, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death in rat hippocampal slice cultures following exposure to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Using this system, we found that phenoxybenzamine reduced neuronal death over a broad dose range (0.1 µM–1 mM) and provided efficacy when delivered up to 16 h post-OGD. We further tested phenoxybenzamine in the rat lateral fluid percussion model of TBI. When administered 8 h after TBI, phenoxybenzamine improved neurological severity scoring and foot fault assessments. At 25 days post injury, phenoxybenzamine treated TBI animals also showed a significant improvement in both learning and memory compared to saline treated controls. We further examined gene expression changes within the cortex following TBI. At 32 h post-TBI phenoxybenzamine treated animals had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory signaling proteins CCL2, IL1β, and MyD88, suggesting that phenoxybenzamine may exert a neuroprotective effect by reducing neuroinflammation after TBI. These data suggest that phenonxybenzamine may have application in the treatment of TBI.
Keywords: phenoxybenzamine; traumatic brain injury; neuroprotection; morris water maze phenoxybenzamine; traumatic brain injury; neuroprotection; morris water maze
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rau, T.F.; Kothiwal, A.; Rova, A.; Rhoderick, J.F.; Poulsen, D.J. Phenoxybenzamine Is Neuroprotective in a Rat Model of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 1402-1417.

AMA Style

Rau TF, Kothiwal A, Rova A, Rhoderick JF, Poulsen DJ. Phenoxybenzamine Is Neuroprotective in a Rat Model of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(1):1402-1417.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rau, Thomas F.; Kothiwal, Aakriti; Rova, Annela; Rhoderick, Joseph F.; Poulsen, David J. 2014. "Phenoxybenzamine Is Neuroprotective in a Rat Model of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 1: 1402-1417.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert