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Functional Diversity of Genes for the Biosynthesis of Paeoniflorin and Its Derivatives in Paeonia
National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing 100029, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
Abstract: The Paeonia root, with or without bark, are considered vital traditional Chinese medicine materials; the examples are those of Bai Shao, Chi Shao, and Dan Pi. In this study, we examine 24 genes and their expressions involved in the biosynthesis of paeoniflorin and its derivatives, which are active compounds of the Paeonia root, in Paeonia lactiflora and P. suffruticosa, as well as other related plants, Punica granatum, Rhus radicans, and Coriaria nepalensis. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that these genes have functional diversity, and analysis of the transcriptional level shows paeoniflorin and gallic acid biosynthesis-related genes exhibit different transcription profiles in flowers, carpels, bark-free roots, and bark of P. lactiflora. The correlation analysis of gene expression and active compound contents support the idea that hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase and phosphomevalonate kinase in the mevalonate pathway and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase/shikimate dehydrogenase in shikimate biosynthesis are potentially closely related to the accumulation of paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin. Coupling gene diversity with chemical analysis, we show that paeoniflorin and its derived aromatic amino acids are predominant in bark.
Keywords: Paeonia; bark; orthologs; gene expression; paeoniflorin; and gallic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yuan, Y.; Yu, J.; Jiang, C.; Li, M.; Lin, S.; Wang, X.; Huang, L. Functional Diversity of Genes for the Biosynthesis of Paeoniflorin and Its Derivatives in Paeonia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18502-18519.
Yuan Y, Yu J, Jiang C, Li M, Lin S, Wang X, Huang L. Functional Diversity of Genes for the Biosynthesis of Paeoniflorin and Its Derivatives in Paeonia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):18502-18519.
Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Chao; Li, Minhui; Lin, Shufang; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi. 2013. "Functional Diversity of Genes for the Biosynthesis of Paeoniflorin and Its Derivatives in Paeonia." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 18502-18519.