Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18640-18656; doi:10.3390/ijms140918640
Article

Redox Signaling Is an Early Event in the Pathogenesis of Renovascular Hypertension

1,2email, 3email, 1email, 4email, 4email, 4email and 3,4,* email
Received: 12 August 2013; in revised form: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a critical role in the development of chronic renal damage in patients with renovascular hypertension. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, it is not known how these pathways intersect to produce chronic renal damage. We tested the hypothesis that renal parenchymal cells are subjected to oxidant stress early in the development of RVH and produce signals that promote influx of inflammatory cells, which may then propagate chronic renal injury. We established a reproducible murine model of RVH by placing a tetrafluoroethhylene cuff on the right renal artery. Three days after cuff placement, renal tissue demonstrates no histologic abnormalities despite up regulation of both pro- and anti-oxidant genes. Mild renal atrophy was observed after seven days and was associated with induction of Tnfα and influx of CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. By 28 days, kidneys developed severe renal atrophy with interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, despite normalization of plasma renin activity. Based on these considerations, we propose that renal parenchymal cells initiate a progressive cascade of events leading to oxidative stress, interstitial inflammation, renal fibrosis, and atrophy.
Keywords: renovascular hypertension; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; oxidative stress; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartono, S.P.; Knudsen, B.E.; Zubair, A.S.; Nath, K.A.; Textor, S.J.; Lerman, L.O.; Grande, J.P. Redox Signaling Is an Early Event in the Pathogenesis of Renovascular Hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18640-18656.

AMA Style

Hartono SP, Knudsen BE, Zubair AS, Nath KA, Textor SJ, Lerman LO, Grande JP. Redox Signaling Is an Early Event in the Pathogenesis of Renovascular Hypertension. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):18640-18656.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hartono, Stella P.; Knudsen, Bruce E.; Zubair, Adeel S.; Nath, Karl A.; Textor, Stephen J.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Grande, Joseph P. 2013. "Redox Signaling Is an Early Event in the Pathogenesis of Renovascular Hypertension." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 18640-18656.

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