Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18421-18436; doi:10.3390/ijms140918421
Review

Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors

1email and 1,2,3,4,* email
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Urologic tumors continue to represent a huge fraction of cancer cases in the United States, with over 376,310 estimated new diagnoses in 2013. As with many types of tumors, urologic tumors vary greatly in their phenotype, ranging from minimally invasive to malignancies possessing great metastatic potential. The increasing need for more efficient and less invasive methods of cancer detection, as well as the ability to predict severity of the disease phenotype is readily evident—yet reliable methods remain elusive in a clinical setting today. Comprehensive panels of gene clusters are being developed toward the generation of molecular signatures in order to better diagnose urologic malignancies, and identify effective treatment strategies in the emerging era of personalized medicine. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the credibility and biomarker value of such molecular signatures in the context of clinical significance relating to the pathological aggressiveness of urologic tumors (prostate, bladder and renal cancer)—also exploiting their predictive potential in the response to treatment.
Keywords: miRNAs; vascularity; therapeutic resistance; circulating tumor cells; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; renal cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Larkin, S.; Kyprianou, N. Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18421-18436.

AMA Style

Larkin S, Kyprianou N. Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):18421-18436.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Larkin, Spencer; Kyprianou, Natasha. 2013. "Molecular Signatures in Urologic Tumors." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 18421-18436.


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