Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 19494-19505; doi:10.3390/ijms141019494
Review

Molecular Research in Penile Cancer—Lessons Learned from the Past and Bright Horizons of the Future?

1 Department of Urology, University of Rostock, Rostock 18055, Germany 2 Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2013; in revised form: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
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Abstract: Penile cancer is a rare tumor. There is a limited understanding of the biological mediators of prognostic and therapeutic importance in penile cancer. However, there exists some fundamental understanding of the major pathways involved in the development of penile pre-neoplastic lesions and neoplasms. The aim of the present review is to highlight our current state of molecular knowledge in penile cancer to foster the necessary tools for researchers to pave major advancements in our current treatment paradigms and cancer specific outcomes.
Keywords: penile cancer; pathways; carcinogenesis; progression; metastasis

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MDPI and ACS Style

Protzel, C.; Spiess, P.E. Molecular Research in Penile Cancer—Lessons Learned from the Past and Bright Horizons of the Future? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19494-19505.

AMA Style

Protzel C, Spiess PE. Molecular Research in Penile Cancer—Lessons Learned from the Past and Bright Horizons of the Future? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(10):19494-19505.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Protzel, Chris; Spiess, Philippe E. 2013. "Molecular Research in Penile Cancer—Lessons Learned from the Past and Bright Horizons of the Future?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 10: 19494-19505.

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