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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18124-18147; doi:10.3390/ijms140918124
Article

Pattern-Recognition Receptor Signaling Regulator mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice, and in Transient Inflammation or Progressive Fibrosis

* ,
,
,
 and
Medical Clinic and Policlinic IV, Nephrology Center, University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinorganic Chemistry)
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Abstract

The cell type-, organ-, and species-specific expression of the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are well described but little is known about the respective expression profiles of their negative regulators. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of A20, CYLD, DUBA, ST2, CD180, SIGIRR, TANK, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, SHP1, SHP2, TOLLIP, IRF4, SIKE, NLRX1, ERBIN, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 in human and mouse solid organs. Humans and mice displayed significant differences between their respective mRNA expression patterns of these factors. Additionally, we characterized their expression profiles in mononuclear blood cells upon bacterial endotoxin, which showed a consistent induction of A20, SOCS3, IRAK-M, and Clec4a2 in human and murine cells. Furthermore, we studied the expression pattern in transient kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury versus post-ischemic atrophy and fibrosis in mice. A20, CD180, ST2, SOCS1, SOCS3, SHIP, IRAK-M, DOK1, DOK2, IRF4, CENTB1, and Clec4a2 were all induced, albeit at different times of injury and repair. Progressive fibrosis was associated with a persistent induction of these factors. Thus, the organ- and species-specific expression patterns need to be considered in the design and interpretation of studies related to PRR-mediated innate immunity, which seems to be involved in tissue injury, tissue regeneration and in progressive tissue scarring.
Keywords: inflammation; Toll-like receptors; infection; fibrogenesis; atrophy; pattern recognition receptors; chronic disease; innate immunity inflammation; Toll-like receptors; infection; fibrogenesis; atrophy; pattern recognition receptors; chronic disease; innate immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Günthner, R.; Kumar, V.R.S.; Lorenz, G.; Anders, H.-J.; Lech, M. Pattern-Recognition Receptor Signaling Regulator mRNA Expression in Humans and Mice, and in Transient Inflammation or Progressive Fibrosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18124-18147.

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