Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 17573-17583; doi:10.3390/ijms140917573
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Prevention of Carcinogenesis and Development of Gastric and Colon Cancers by 2-Aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3): Direct and Indirect Anti-Cancer Activity of Phx-3

1 Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan 2 Fourth Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Ibaragi Medical Center, 3-20-1 Chuo, Ami, Inashiki, Ibaraki 300-0395, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2013; in revised form: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Prevention of Colorectal Cancer)
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Abstract: 2-Aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3), an oxidative phenoxazine, exerts strong anticancer effects on various cancer cell lines originating from different organs, in vitro. This article reviews new aspects for the prevention of carcinogenesis and development of gastric and colon cancers by Phx-3, based on the strong anticancer effects of Phx-3 on gastric and colon cancer cell lines (direct anticancer effects of Phx-3 for preventing development of cancer), the bacteriocidal effects of Phx-3 against Helicobacter pylori associated with carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (indirect anticancer effects for preventing carcinogenesis of gastric cancer), and the proapoptotic activity of Phx-3 against human neutrophils involved in the incidence of ulcerative colitis associated with a high colon cancer risk (indirect anticancer effects for preventing carcinogenesis of colon cancer).
Keywords: Phx-3; gastric and colon cancers; apoptosis; neutrophils

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomoda, A.; Miyazawa, K.; Tabuchi, T. Prevention of Carcinogenesis and Development of Gastric and Colon Cancers by 2-Aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3): Direct and Indirect Anti-Cancer Activity of Phx-3. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17573-17583.

AMA Style

Tomoda A, Miyazawa K, Tabuchi T. Prevention of Carcinogenesis and Development of Gastric and Colon Cancers by 2-Aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3): Direct and Indirect Anti-Cancer Activity of Phx-3. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):17573-17583.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomoda, Akio; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Takafumi. 2013. "Prevention of Carcinogenesis and Development of Gastric and Colon Cancers by 2-Aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3): Direct and Indirect Anti-Cancer Activity of Phx-3." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 17573-17583.

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