Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14785-14799; doi:10.3390/ijms140714785
Review

Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges

1,†
, 2,†
, 1
 and 1,*
Received: 4 June 2013; in revised form: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [199 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Small noncoding RNAs that are 19-23 nucleotides long, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are involved in almost all biological mechanisms during carcinogenesis. Recent studies show that miRNAs released from live cells are detectable in body fluids and may be taken up by other cells to confer cell-cell communication. These released miRNAs (here referred to as extracellular miRNAs) are often protected by RNA-binding proteins or embedded inside circulating microvesicles. Due to their relative stability, extracellular miRNAs are believed to be promising candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of disease, or even as therapeutic agents for targeted treatment. In this review, we first describe biogenesis and characteristics of these miRNAs. We then summarize recent publications involving extracellular miRNA profiling studies in three representative urologic cancers, including: prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. We focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of these miRNAs in biological fluids, such as serum, plasma, and urine. Finally, we discuss advantages and challenges of these miRNAs in clinical applications.
Keywords: urologic cancer; microRNA; extracellular miRNA; microvesicle; exosome urologic cancer; microRNA; extracellular miRNA; microvesicle; exosome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, X.; Liang, M.; Dittmar, R.; Wang, L. Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14785-14799.

AMA Style

Huang X, Liang M, Dittmar R, Wang L. Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14785-14799.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Meihua; Dittmar, Rachel; Wang, Liang. 2013. "Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14785-14799.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert