Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14785-14799; doi:10.3390/ijms140714785

Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges

1,†email, 2,†email, 1email and 1,* email
Received: 4 June 2013; in revised form: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Small noncoding RNAs that are 19-23 nucleotides long, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are involved in almost all biological mechanisms during carcinogenesis. Recent studies show that miRNAs released from live cells are detectable in body fluids and may be taken up by other cells to confer cell-cell communication. These released miRNAs (here referred to as extracellular miRNAs) are often protected by RNA-binding proteins or embedded inside circulating microvesicles. Due to their relative stability, extracellular miRNAs are believed to be promising candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of disease, or even as therapeutic agents for targeted treatment. In this review, we first describe biogenesis and characteristics of these miRNAs. We then summarize recent publications involving extracellular miRNA profiling studies in three representative urologic cancers, including: prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. We focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of these miRNAs in biological fluids, such as serum, plasma, and urine. Finally, we discuss advantages and challenges of these miRNAs in clinical applications.
Keywords: urologic cancer; microRNA; extracellular miRNA; microvesicle; exosome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, X.; Liang, M.; Dittmar, R.; Wang, L. Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14785-14799.

AMA Style

Huang X, Liang M, Dittmar R, Wang L. Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14785-14799.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Meihua; Dittmar, Rachel; Wang, Liang. 2013. "Extracellular MicroRNAs in Urologic Malignancies: Chances and Challenges." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14785-14799.

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