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Molecular Weight Dependent Glucose Lowering Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) on Postprandial Blood Glucose Level in SD Rats Model
Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 305-811, Korea
Division of Non-Clinical Studies, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon 305-343, Korea
Kunpoong Bio Co., Ltd., Gumnung-ri, 407-11, Hallim-eup, Jeju Special Self Governing Province, Jeju 695-923, Korea
Department of Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Department of Chemistry and Food Science, Framingham State University, Framingham, MA 01701, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Abstract: This research investigated the effect of enzymatically digested low molecular weight (MW) chitosan oligosaccharide on type 2 diabetes prevention. Three different chitosan oligosaccharide samples with varying MW were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase and porcine pancreatic α-amylase (GO2KA1; <1000 Da, GO2KA2; 1000–10,000 Da, GO2KA3; MW > 10,000 Da). The in vitro results showed that all tested samples had similar rat α-glucosidase inhibitory and porcine α-amylase inhibitory activity. Based on these observations, we decided to further investigate the effect of all three samples at a dose of 0.1 g/kg, on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model after sucrose loading test. In the animal trial, all tested samples had postprandial blood glucose reduction effect, when compared to control, however GO2KA1 supplementation had the strongest effect. The glucose peak (Cmax) for GO2KA1 and control was 152 mg/dL and 193 mg/dL, respectively. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC) for GO2KA1 and control was 262 h mg/dL and 305 h mg/dL, respectively. Furthermore, the time of peak plasma concentration of blood glucose (Tmax) for GO2KA1 was significantly delayed (0.9 h) compared to control (0.5 h). These results suggest that GO2KA1 could have a beneficial effect for blood glucose management relevant to diabetes prevention in normal and pre-diabetic individuals. The suggested mechanism of action is via inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolysis enzyme α-glucosidase and since GO2KA1 (MW < 1000 Da) had higher in vivo effect, we hypothesize that it is more readily absorbed and might exert further biological effect once it is absorbed in the blood stream, relevant to blood glucose management.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; pre-diabetes; blood glucose; α-glucosidase inhibition; low molecular chitosan oligosacharide; GO2KA1
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Jo, S.-H.; Ha, K.-S.; Moon, K.-S.; Kim, J.-G.; Oh, C.-G.; Kim, Y.-C.; Apostolidis, E.; Kwon, Y.-I. Molecular Weight Dependent Glucose Lowering Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) on Postprandial Blood Glucose Level in SD Rats Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14214-14224.
Jo S-H, Ha K-S, Moon K-S, Kim J-G, Oh C-G, Kim Y-C, Apostolidis E, Kwon Y-I. Molecular Weight Dependent Glucose Lowering Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) on Postprandial Blood Glucose Level in SD Rats Model. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14214-14224.
Jo, Sung-Hoon; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Jong-Gwan; Oh, Chen-Gum; Kim, Young-Cheul; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Kwon, Young-In. 2013. "Molecular Weight Dependent Glucose Lowering Effect of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan Oligosaccharide (GO2KA1) on Postprandial Blood Glucose Level in SD Rats Model." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14214-14224.