Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13154-13170; doi:10.3390/ijms140713154
Article

Comparison of Cellular Uptake and Inflammatory Response via Toll-Like Receptor 4 to Lipopolysaccharide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

1,2email, 3email and 1,2,* email
Received: 9 May 2013; in revised form: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Nano-Structure Materials and Cells)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The innate immune response is the earliest cellular response to infectious agents and mediates the interactions between microbes and cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in these interactions. We have already shown that TLRs are involved with the uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) and promote inflammatory responses. In this paper, we compared role of cellular uptake and inflammatory response via TLR 4 to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TiO2 NPs. In the case of LPS, LPS binds to LPS binding protein (LBP) and CD 14, and then this complex binds to TLR 4. In the case of TiO2 NPs, the necessity of LBP and CD 14 to induce the inflammatory response and for uptake by cells was investigated using over-expression, antibody blocking, and siRNA knockdown experiments. Our results suggested that for cellular uptake of TiO2 NPs, TLR 4 did not form a complex with LBP and CD 14. In the TiO2 NP-mediated inflammatory response, TLR 4 acted as the signaling receptor without protein complex of LPS, LBP and CD 14. The results suggested that character of TiO2 NPs might be similar to the complex of LPS, LBP and CD 14. These results are important for development of safer nanomaterials.
Keywords: toll-like receptors; titanium dioxide nanoparticles; LPS binding protein; CD 14
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [482 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 04:57 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Mano, S.S.; Kanehira, K.; Taniguchi, A. Comparison of Cellular Uptake and Inflammatory Response via Toll-Like Receptor 4 to Lipopolysaccharide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13154-13170.

AMA Style

Mano SS, Kanehira K, Taniguchi A. Comparison of Cellular Uptake and Inflammatory Response via Toll-Like Receptor 4 to Lipopolysaccharide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13154-13170.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mano, Sharmy S.; Kanehira, Koki; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi. 2013. "Comparison of Cellular Uptake and Inflammatory Response via Toll-Like Receptor 4 to Lipopolysaccharide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13154-13170.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert