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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 12914-12930; doi:10.3390/ijms140712914

Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

1,2,* , 1
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
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Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid) is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES) was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2) particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells) to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.
Keywords: phthalate; phthalic acid; chemical probe; protein-protein interaction phthalate; phthalic acid; chemical probe; protein-protein interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Liang, S.-S.; Liao, W.-T.; Kuo, C.-J.; Chou, C.-H.; Wu, C.-J.; Wang, H.-M. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12914-12930.

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