Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 12914-12930; doi:10.3390/ijms140712914
Article

Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

1 Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, San-Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan 2 Center for Resources, Research and Development, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, San-Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan 3 Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, San-Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan 4 Kaiser Pharmaceutical Co., LTD., 9, Huangong Road, Yong-Kang District, Tainan 710, Taiwan 5 Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, San-Ming District, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2013; in revised form: 7 June 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteins and Protein-Ligand Interactions)
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Abstract: Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid) is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES) was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2) particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells) to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.
Keywords: phthalate; phthalic acid; chemical probe; protein-protein interaction

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, S.-S.; Liao, W.-T.; Kuo, C.-J.; Chou, C.-H.; Wu, C.-J.; Wang, H.-M. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12914-12930.

AMA Style

Liang S-S, Liao W-T, Kuo C-J, Chou C-H, Wu C-J, Wang H-M. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):12914-12930.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liang, Shih-Shin; Liao, Wei-Ting; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Chou, Chi-Hsien; Wu, Chin-Jen; Wang, Hui-Min. 2013. "Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 12914-12930.

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