Next Article in Journal
Protein Folding and Aggregation into Amyloid: The Interference by Natural Phenolic Compounds
Previous Article in Journal
Lymphocytes of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Display Different DNA Damage Repair Kinetics and Expression Profiles of DNA Repair and Stress Response Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 12401-12410; doi:10.3390/ijms140612401

Immunomodulatory Activity of Recombinant Ricin Toxin Binding Subunit B (RTB)

1,†,* , 1,2,3,†
2,*  and 4,*
1 Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Zoonosis Prevention and Control Key Laboratory, Changchun 130122, China 2 Department of Immunology, Norman Bethune College of Medical Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China 3 Dean's Office, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132013, China 4 Animal Laboratory Center, 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100039, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 7 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [427 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Ricin toxin binding subunit B (RTB) is one of the subunits of the ricin protein. RTB has been used as adjuvant, but little is known about its mechanism. In this study, we found that RTB increased not only nitric oxide (NO) release, but also tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. They subsequently exhibited enhanced ConA-induced T-cell and LPS-induced B-cell proliferative responses. We also examined the cytokines that were produced from splenocytes following in vitro RTB administration. Increased levels of IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF-α were observed, while IL-4 and IL-5 were unaffected. These results demonstrate that recombinant RTB can act on the immune system and activate T-cells by introducing a Th1 immune response. Th1 cells might be the primary cellular target affected by RTB. Our results suggest that the recombinant RTB can promote the activation of macrophages and has a beneficial effect on immunomodulatory activity.
Keywords: RTB; macrophage; lymphocyte proliferation; Th1 cell; cytokine RTB; macrophage; lymphocyte proliferation; Th1 cell; cytokine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, W.; Xu, N.; Yuan, H.; Li, S.; Liu, L.; Pu, Z.; Wan, J.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.; Li, R. Immunomodulatory Activity of Recombinant Ricin Toxin Binding Subunit B (RTB). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12401-12410.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert