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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 12380-12400; doi:10.3390/ijms140612380
Article

Lymphocytes of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Display Different DNA Damage Repair Kinetics and Expression Profiles of DNA Repair and Stress Response Genes

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Received: 7 October 2012; in revised form: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
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Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive capacity. Given the limitations to analyze brain cells, it is important to study whether peripheral lymphocytes can provide biological markers for AD, an interesting approach, once they represent the overall condition of the organism. To that extent, we sought to find whether lymphocytes of AD patients present DNA damage and repair kinetics different from those found in elderly matched controls (EC group) under in vitro treatment with hydrogen peroxide. We found that AD patient cells indeed showed an altered DNA repair kinetics (comet assay). Real-time quantitative analysis of genes associated with DNA stress response also showed that FANCG and CDKN1A are upregulated in AD, while MTH1 is downregulated, compared with the control group. In contrast, the expression of ATM, ATR and FEN1 genes does not seem to differ between these groups. Interestingly, TP53 protein expression was increased in AD patients. Therefore, we found that kinetics of the stress response in the DNA were significantly different in AD patients, supporting the hypothesis that repair pathways may be compromised in AD and that peripheral lymphocytes can reveal this condition.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; DNA repair; oxidative stress Alzheimer’s disease; DNA repair; oxidative stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Leandro, G.S.; Lobo, R.R.; Oliveira, D.V.N.P.; Moriguti, J.C.; Sakamoto-Hojo, E.T. Lymphocytes of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Display Different DNA Damage Repair Kinetics and Expression Profiles of DNA Repair and Stress Response Genes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12380-12400.

AMA Style

Leandro GS, Lobo RR, Oliveira DVNP, Moriguti JC, Sakamoto-Hojo ET. Lymphocytes of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Display Different DNA Damage Repair Kinetics and Expression Profiles of DNA Repair and Stress Response Genes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):12380-12400.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leandro, Giovana S.; Lobo, Romulo R.; Oliveira, Douglas V.N.P.; Moriguti, Julio C.; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T. 2013. "Lymphocytes of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Display Different DNA Damage Repair Kinetics and Expression Profiles of DNA Repair and Stress Response Genes." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 12380-12400.


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