Abstract: Melatonin is the major secretory product of the pineal gland during the night and has multiple activities including the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It also possesses the ability to modulate immune responses by regulation of the T helper 1/2 balance and cytokine production. Autoimmune diseases, which result from the activation of immune cells by autoantigens released from normal tissues, affect around 5% of the population. Activation of autoantigen-specific immune cells leads to subsequent damage of target tissues by these activated cells. Melatonin therapy has been investigated in several animal models of autoimmune disease, where it has a beneficial effect in a number of models excepting rheumatoid arthritis, and has been evaluated in clinical autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. This review summarizes and highlights the role and the modulatory effects of melatonin in several inflammatory autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease.
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Lin, G.-J.; Huang, S.-H.; Chen, S.-J.; Wang, C.-H.; Chang, D.-M.; Sytwu, H.-K. Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11742-11766.
Lin G-J, Huang S-H, Chen S-J, Wang C-H, Chang D-M, Sytwu H-K. Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11742-11766.
Lin, Gu-Jiun; Huang, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Deh-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang. 2013. "Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11742-11766.