Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 11742-11766; doi:10.3390/ijms140611742
Review

Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

1 Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Section 6, MinChuan East Road, Neihu, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 2 Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, No.325, Section 2, Chenggong Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 3 Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Section 6, MinChuan East Road, Neihu, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 4 Department of Pediatrics, Tri-Service General Hospital, No.325, Section 2, Chenggong Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 5 Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, No.325, Section 2, Chenggong Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 6 Institute of Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Section 6, MinChuan East Road, Neihu, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 7 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Section 6, MinChuan East Road, Neihu, Taipei City 114, Taiwan 8 Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy, Tri-Service General Hospital, No.325, Section 2, Chenggong Rd., Neihu District, Taipei City 114, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2013; in revised form: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Melatonin)
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Abstract: Melatonin is the major secretory product of the pineal gland during the night and has multiple activities including the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It also possesses the ability to modulate immune responses by regulation of the T helper 1/2 balance and cytokine production. Autoimmune diseases, which result from the activation of immune cells by autoantigens released from normal tissues, affect around 5% of the population. Activation of autoantigen-specific immune cells leads to subsequent damage of target tissues by these activated cells. Melatonin therapy has been investigated in several animal models of autoimmune disease, where it has a beneficial effect in a number of models excepting rheumatoid arthritis, and has been evaluated in clinical autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. This review summarizes and highlights the role and the modulatory effects of melatonin in several inflammatory autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Keywords: melatonin; autoimmune disease; multiple sclerosis; systemic lupus erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis; type 1 diabetes mellitus; inflammatory bowel disease

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, G.-J.; Huang, S.-H.; Chen, S.-J.; Wang, C.-H.; Chang, D.-M.; Sytwu, H.-K. Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11742-11766.

AMA Style

Lin G-J, Huang S-H, Chen S-J, Wang C-H, Chang D-M, Sytwu H-K. Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11742-11766.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Gu-Jiun; Huang, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Deh-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang. 2013. "Modulation by Melatonin of the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11742-11766.

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