Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
An Overview of Biological Macromolecule Crystallization
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant'Angelo, Via Cintia, Napoli I-80126, Italy
Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, C.N.R, Via Mezzocannone 16, Napoli I-80134, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2013; in revised form: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
Abstract: The elucidation of the three dimensional structure of biological macromolecules has provided an important contribution to our current understanding of many basic mechanisms involved in life processes. This enormous impact largely results from the ability of X-ray crystallography to provide accurate structural details at atomic resolution that are a prerequisite for a deeper insight on the way in which bio-macromolecules interact with each other to build up supramolecular nano-machines capable of performing specialized biological functions. With the advent of high-energy synchrotron sources and the development of sophisticated software to solve X-ray and neutron crystal structures of large molecules, the crystallization step has become even more the bottleneck of a successful structure determination. This review introduces the general aspects of protein crystallization, summarizes conventional and innovative crystallization methods and focuses on the new strategies utilized to improve the success rate of experiments and increase crystal diffraction quality.
Keywords: protein; nucleic acid; membrane; crystallization; new methodologies
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Russo Krauss, I.; Merlino, A.; Vergara, A.; Sica, F. An Overview of Biological Macromolecule Crystallization. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11643-11691.
Russo Krauss I, Merlino A, Vergara A, Sica F. An Overview of Biological Macromolecule Crystallization. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11643-11691.
Russo Krauss, Irene; Merlino, Antonello; Vergara, Alessandro; Sica, Filomena. 2013. "An Overview of Biological Macromolecule Crystallization." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11643-11691.